Extra Questions of Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources PDF Download

We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.

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Sustainable Management of Natural Resources Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Science Chapter 16

Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Very Short Answer Type

Question: List any two traditional systems of water harvesting.

Answer: Two traditional systems of water harvesting are:

  • Collection of water in ponds and
  • Construction of small earthen dams.

Question: What are the two kinds of natural resources?

Answer: Water and forest.

Question: Name any two forest products, each of which is the basis for some industry.

Answer: Pine wood for matchbox industry.Bamboo for paper industry.

Question: State an instance where human intervention saved the forests from destruction.

Answer: Human intervention saved the Arabari forest range of West Bengal from destruction with active and willing participation of local community. The Sal forest of Arabari underwent a remarkable recovery.

Question: State two changes you can make in your habits to reduce the consumption of electricity or water.

Answer: Two changes that can be made to reduce the consumption of electricity or water are:

  • Switch off lights and fans when not in use.
  • Leaked taps should be repaired immediately.

Question: What is water harvesting?

Answer: Water harvesting means capturing rainwater where it falls or capturing the run off in a local area for future use.

Question: Why must we conserve our forests?

Answer: We must conserve our forests as they are of great value. The reasons for conserving forests are:

  • Forests help in protection of land and retaining sub-soil water.
  • Forests check floods and maintain ecosystem.

Question: What is meant by wildlife?

Answer: Wildlife means all those naturally occurring animals, plants and their species which are not cultivated, domesticated and tamed.

Question: List any four characteristics of a good fuel.


  1. Higher calorific value
  2. Lesser pollution
  3. Sustainable for longer period
  4. Easily transportable

Question: What are non-renewable resources of energy? Give two examples of such resources.

Answer: Sources which are. not available again and again and are getting exhausted and are called non-renewable sources of energy, e.g. coal, petroleum.

Question: List any four disadvantages of using fossil fuels for the production of energy.

Answer: Disadvantages of using fossil fuels are as follows:

  • Fossil fuels cause pollution.
  • They also cause acid rain.
  • They disturb ecology.
  • They cannot be reused, i.e. they are non-renewable.

Question: Give two examples each of the following:

  1. Renewable sources of energy
  2. Non-renewable sources of energy.

Answer: 1. Geothermal energy, wind energy

2. Coal, petroleum

Question: Define Biomass.

Answer: The material contained in the bodies of plants and animals is called biomass.

Question: Name any two forest products each of which is the basis for some industry. (CBSE 2009)


  1. Timber wood: Used in making paper and furniture.
  2. Latex of rubber plant: In making tyres.
  3. Resins and gums: Used in paints and varnishes.

Question: Mention any one negative effect of our affluent life style on the environment. (CBSE 2013, 2014)

Answer: Chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigerators causing ozone hole. Carbon dioxide released on burning fossil fuels causing global warming.

Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Short Answer Type

Question: List any four measures for conserving forests. (CBSE 2009)


  1. Reduce the indiscriminate felling of trees.
  2. Create awareness among people for conservation of forests.
  3. Involving local people in management and conservation of forests.
  4. Reforestation by promoting silviculture.
  5. Providing protection to wildlife and endangered plants.
  6. Making strict laws for conservation of forests.

Question: List any four advantages of water harvesting. (CBSE 2009)


  1. Helps to recharge ground water.
  2. Underground water does not act as breeding ground of mosquitoes.
  3. Underground water does not get contaminated by human and animal wastes.
  4. Provides moisture to the soil and crops.

Question: We often observe domestic waste decomposing in the by lanes of residential colonies. Suggest ways to make people realise that the improper disposal of waste is harmful to the environment. (CBSE 2013)


  • Create awareness through campaigns and road rallies on the issue.
  • Impose penalty on those found throwing wastes on the road.

Question: List two environment-friendly practices or habits which need to be followed by every member of a family / community. Explain how these practices will support the “save the environment” mission. (CBSE 2014)


  • Segregation of wastes into biodegradable and non-biodegradable and ensuring their reuse and recycling, if possible.
  • Less use of fossil fuels and switching to environment friendly alternatives like use of solar energy and wind energy, etc.

Question: What is meant by “Sustainable Management”? Why is reuse considered better than recycling? (CBSE 2015)

Answer: The judicious and wise use of resources to cater to the current basic needs and preserving the resources for the needs of future generations is called as Sustainable Management.

Recycling requires more amount of energy and money while no energy is required for the reuse of materials. So, reuse is better than recycling.

Question: List two main causes of the pollution of water of the river Ganga. State how pollution and contamination of river water prove harmful for the health of the people of neighbouring areas. (CBSE 2015)

Answer: The two main causes of pollution of water of river Ganga are:

  1. Disposal of domestic and industrial effluents into it.
  2. Human activities like washing clothes, bathing, etc.

The harm to the people of neighbouring areas are:

  1. Leads to water-borne diseases like cholera, typhoid, etc.
  2. Harms the aquatic plants and animals in the water body.

Question: What steps have been taken by West Bangal Government to protect badly degraded sal forests?

Answer: By the efforts of A.K . Banerjee in Arabari forest range of Midnapore district the badly degraded sal forests were revived with the involvement and participation of local villagers. The villagers were in return given employment and were allowed to collect firewood and fuelwood at a nominal fee.

Question: Why are forests considered ‘biodiversity hot spots’? What would happen due to loss of biodiversity?

Answer: Wide variety of plants, animals, microorganisms are found in forests. So they act as biodiversity hotspots. Loss of biodiversity disturbs ecological balance.

Question: What measures would you take to conserve electricity in your house? (NCERT Exemplar)


  • Switch off the fans and lights when they are not required.
  • Use solar water heaters during winters.
  • Use LED lights instead of normal bulbs or tube lights.

Question: Although coal and petroleum are produced by degradation of biomass, yet we need to conserve them. Why? (NCERT Exemplar)

Answer: It takes millions of years to form coal and petroleum and their reserves are limited. Due to this they would get exhausted very soon if utilised at a faster rate. Hence, they should be conserved for the needs of the future generations too.

Question: What are natural resources? State two factors that work against an equitable distribution of these resources. (CBSE 2009)

Answer: The stock of nature such as air, water, soil, minerals, forests and wildlife are called as natural resources. The two factors that work against their equitable distribution are

  • Overuse of resources and their overexploitation.
  • Human activities like cutting of trees, hunting, etc. which disturbs ecological balance.

Question: How can we as an individual help in reducing the use of fossil fuels? Mention two ways.

Answer: We can reduce the use of fossil fuels by

  • Switching over to renewable sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, etc.
  • Use public transport instead of private vehicles,
  • Ensure proper servicing and tuning of vehicles to increase fuel efficiency.

Question: What is meant by exploitation of resources with short aims? List its four advantages. (CBSE 2009)


Use of resources for the benefit of a few rich and powerful people in order to fulfil short-term aims and the present needs is called exploitatation of resources with short aims.

Its advantages are:

  • Maximises profit without any accountability.
  • Increases growth rate of economy for that duration.
  • They fulfil the needs of the present generation.
  • Ensures availability of a variety of raw materials for human use

Question: Dams are useful for the society but there is public opposition to the construction of large dams. Justify your answer by giving three problems. (CBSE 2011)


  • Social problems: Large number of human settlements gets submerged in water during construction of dam.
  • Environmental problems: Loss of vast variety of flora-fauna due to deforestation and biodiversity loss during construction of dams.
  • Economic problems: Huge amount of public money is spent without getting proportionate benefits from such dams.

Question: What is environmental planning? List any four human activities that are directly connected to influence the environment of a region.

Answer: Various steps taken to reduce pollution and conserve natural resources for long term use is called environmental planning. It is necessary to maintain ecological balance. Human activities that are directly connected to influence the environment of a region are:

  • Large scale deforestation for agricultural land or housing needs of growing population.
  • Discharge of domestic wastes and industrial effluents into water bodies.
  • Excessive use of fossil fuels which causes air pollution.
  • Excessive use of non-biodegradable materials, plastics, detergents, etc. which harm the environment.

Extra Questions for Class 10 Science Chapter 16 Long Answer Type

Question: What is a dam? Write two main advantages and two ill-effects of constructing big dam. (CBSE 2009)

Answer: Dams are constructed across the rivers to regulate the flow of water and store the huge amounts of water in large reservoirs. This ensures the supply of water for irrigation and other purposes.

Advantages of Dams:

  • Ensures water availability for irrigation of fields.
  • Water can be used to generate electricity in Hydel power stations by using turbines.

Disadvantages of dams:

  • Social problems: Human settlements get submerged under water.
  • Environmental problems: Large scale loss of biodiversity and deforestation.
  • Economic problems: Huge amount of public money utilised in their construction but benefits are not proportionate.

Question: Define Reduce, Recycle and Reuse with reference to the environment. Which is better strategy among recycle and reuse? Why?


Recycle: Recycling wastes like paper, plastic and glass to obtain materials for use.

Reduce: Minimise the use of natural resources.

Reuse: Encourage the use of things again and again instead of throwing them away.Reuse is better than recycling.

Recycling requires large amount of energy and money whereas reuse does not require any energy. So, reuse is better than recycling.

Question: Prepare a list of five activities that you perform daily in which natural resources can be conserved or energy utilisation can be minimised. (NCERT Exemplar)


  • Taking a bus, public transport or walking/cycling instead of a private vehicle.
  • Using LED bulbs in homes instead of normal bulbs.
  • Talking the stairs instead of lift.
  • Using fan and light only when required.
  • Using solar water heating devices.

Question: Prejudice against traditional use of forests areas has no basis. Explain with an example.

Answer: Local people were not allowed by the Government to use the forests in the traditional ways they had been using for generations. This has led to harmful effects on the sustainability of forests and its resources. A striking example of such case is: Nomadic shepherds used to take their sheep for grazing in the alpine meadows of Great Himalayan Peak during summers. But when they were not allowed to take sheep for grazing, it was seen that grass in the region grew very tall and then fell over preventing fresh growth, which proved harmful for the biodiversity of the region.

Question: What is the importance of forest as a resource? (NCERT Exemplar)

Answer: Forest are important as a resources because they

  • Provide shelter and food to wildlife.
  • Maintain balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
  • Increase water holding capacity of soil and prevent soil erosion.
  • Help to regulate the water cycle.
  • Products like fuel, wood, timber, paper, etc. are obtained.
  • Products like fruits, resins, gums, essential oils, etc. used in various industries are obtained.

Question: Why are the Arabari forests of Bengal known to be a good example of conserved forest? (NCERT Exemplar)

Answer: Due to efforts of forest officer A.K. Banerjee, the Sal forests in Arabari forests of West Bengal were revived with the active participation of the local people in their conservation. In return the villagers were given employment in both silviculture and harvesting operations, 25 per cent of the final harvest, and allowed fuel wood and fodder collection on payment of a nominal fee.

By 1983, due to the active and willing participation of the villagers, the previously worthless Sal forests in Arabari forest range of Midnapore district Underwent a remarkable recovery and were valued ₹ 12.5 crores

Question: What is ‘Chipko Movement’? Why should we conserve forests?

Answer: Chipko Movement’ is a non-political public movement for conservation of natural habitat and wildlife by preventing excessive commercial exploitation of forests. Chipko means ‘hugs’ and the movement was started by the villagers of Garhwal by hugging trees to stop the contractors from cutting the trees. We should conserve forests because it helps in protection of land, retaining sub-soil water, checking floods, and thereby maintain in the ecosystem.

Question: What is an equitable distribution of resources in a society and why is it necessary? State any two factors which work against an equitable distribution of resources.

Answer: Equitable distribution of resources means ensuring benefits from the development of resources to all human beings. There should be equitable distribution of resources because every living being has an equal right on the natural resources of the earth. If anybody is using them excessively, it means somewhere else somebody is being deprived of it. Factors which work against equitable distribution of resources are:

  • Advancement and development of society.
  • Energisation and materialization.

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