We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Science Civics Chapter 5 Popular Struggles and Movements. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
Table of Contents
Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Civics Chapter 5
Extra Questions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Very Short Answer Type
Question: When did extraordinary popular movement begin in Nepal?
Answer: In April 2006, Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement.
Question: What was the aim of popular movement of Nepal?
Answer: The popular movement aimed at restoring democracy.
Question: Who was the constitutional Monarch of Nepal?
Answer: King Birendra was the constitutional Monarch of Nepal.
Question: Why did King Gyanendra replace King Birendra?
Answer: King Birendra was killed in a mysterious massacre of the royal family in 2001, so king Gyanendra replaced him.
Question: What does ‘SPA’ mean?
Answer: It means “Seven Party Alliance”.
Question: What was the role of SPA in Nepal Movement?
Answer: All the major political parties in the parliament forced a Seven Party Alliance and called for a four day strike in Kathmandu to start the popular movement to revive democracy.
Question: Who were Maoists?
Answer: Those communists who believed in the ideology of Mao, the great leader of the Chinese Revolution were called Maoists.
Question: Who was made the new Prime Minister of interim government of Nepal?
Answer: Girija Prasad Koirala was chosen by SPA as the PM of the interim government of Nepal.
Question: Where is Bolivia located?
Answer: Bolivia is a poor country located in Latin America (South America).
Question: For whose interest do the public welfare interest groups work? [CBSE (F) 2017]
Answer: Public welfare groups work in favour of-All Sections of society.
Question: What does ‘BAMCEF’ mean?
Answer: It is Backward and Minority Community Employees Federation.
Question: What is the role of ‘BAMCEF’?
Answer: It is an organisation largely made up of government employees that campaigns against caste discrimination.
Extra Questions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Short Answer Type
Question: Differentiate between Nepal’s movement and Bolivia’s popular struggle. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Answer: The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy, while the struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected democratic government. The popular struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy, while the struggle in Nepal was about the foundations of the country’s politics. Both these struggles were successful but their impact was at different levels.
Question: Analyse the role of popular struggles in the development of democracy. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Answer: Democracy evolves through a popular struggle. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. Democracy usually involves conflicts between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power.
Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes, it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or judiciary. But when there is a deep dispute, very often these institutions themselves get involved in the dispute.
These conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organised politics. These include political parties, pressure groups and movement groups.
Question: “Popular struggles are integral to the working democracy.” Explain the statement in the light of Bolivia’s struggle against privatisation of water. [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Answer: The World Bank pressurized the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights to a Multinational company for the city of cocha bamba. The company immediately increased the price of water by four times. This led to a spontaneous popular protest. The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war.
In January 2000 a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders joined a four day political strike in the city. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. Nothing happened and so they protested again though they were brutally suppressed. Another strike took place in april and the government imposed the martial law. The power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government to concede to all the demands of the protestors.
Question: How do pressure groups and movements influence politics?
Answer: Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in a variety of ways:
- They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals and their activity by carrying out information campaigns, organising meetings, file petitions, etc. Most of these groups try to influence the media to give attention to these issues.
- They often organise protests like strikes or disrupting programmes. Workers’ organisations, employees’ associations and most of the movement groups often resort to these tactics in order to force the government to take note of their demands.
- Some persons from pressure groups or movement groups may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.
Question: “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement.
Answer: (i) Nepal witnessed an extraordinary popular movement in April 2006. The movement aimed at restoring democracy.
(ii) All the major political parties in the parliament formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA) and called for a five day strike in Kathmandu.
(iii) On the last day of the ultimatum, the King was forced to concede to all the demands of the SPA.
With the result an interim government was formed, becoming a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.
Question: What are movement groups? Give examples.
Answer: When an organisation starts a movement to achieve a specific goal or an issue, such organisation is called movement groups.
(i) Narmada Bachao Andolan: The movement started due to a specific issue of displacement of tribal people due to the construction of Sardar Sarovar Dam on river Narmada. They wanted to stop this construction to get back to their homes.
(ii) Nepalese Movement: It was started by a Seven Party Alliance group to regain democracy in Nepal which had been taken over by the ruling King Gyanendra. Its specific objective was to regain democracy.
Question: What are sectional interest groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Answer: Sectional interest groups:
The groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of a society is called sectional interest groups.
- They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
- They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
- Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members not society in general.
Question: What are public interest pressure groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Answer: Public interest groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests. Their functions is as follows:
- It aims to help groups other than their own members.
- They represent some common interests that needs to be defended.
- The members of the organisation may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents. For example, A group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage.
- For example, BAMCEF
Question: Who led the protest against water privatization in Bolivia? Describe the ways of protest adopted by that organization. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Answer: Protest against water privatization in Bolivia:FEDECOR (comprised local professionals, including engineers and Environmentalists), human rights and community leaders.
Ways of their Protest:
- Organised a successful four-day general strike in the city.
- Influenced the decision through direct participation in competitive politics.
- Created parties and formed governments.
- Formed pressure groups for the protest.
Question: How are issue specific movements different from generic movements? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Answer: Difference between issue specific and generic movements:
- Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame, while generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.
- Issue specific movements tend to have a clear leadership and some organisation. But their active life is usually short.
- Generic movements share a broad objective and have a similar approach. Sometimes, these broad movements have a loose umbrella organisation as well
Extra Questions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 5 Long Answer Type
Question: How do the pressure groups and movements influence politics? Explain with examples. [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]
Answer: The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was not led by any political party. It was led by FEDECOR. This organisation comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists. They were supported by a federation of farmers who relied on irrigation, middle class students, confederation of factory workers’ unions and the city’s growing population of the homeless street children.
Most of these groups try to influence the media. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements. Business groups often employ professional lobbyists. Some pressure groups formed and led by the leaders of political parties. Some political parties grow out of movements.
Question: Explain with appropriate examples the relevance of ‘popular struggle’ of both Nepal and Bolivia for democracy. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Answer: Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception. Defining movements of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power. These movements come when the country is going through transition to democracy, expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.
Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary. These conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations where there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic movements. But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organised politics.
Question: How are ‘movements’ different from interest groups? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Answer: Difference between interest groups and movements:
(i) Interest groups do not have a loose organisation whereas Movements have a loose organisation.
(ii) Decision making of interest groups is formal whereas decision making of movements is informal and flexible.
(iii) They do not depend so much on spontaneous mass participation and formed by people with a common interest and occupation. Movements depend much more on spontaneous mass participation.
(iv) Interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section or a group of society such as, trade unions/business association doctor etc. Whereas, the movements groups are issue specific that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame such as the Nepalese movement for democracy/ Narmada Bachao Andolan etc.
(v) Interest groups promote collective rather than selective good such as BAMCEF(Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) whereas the movement groups are more general or generic movement that seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term such as women’s movement.
(vi) Interest groups represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended such as FEDECOR whereas movement group are long term and involve more than one issue such as environmental movement.
Question: Examine the role of pressure groups and movements in deepening democracy. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Answer: Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy.
- It reminds the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
- Put pressure on the rulers for the unhealthy activities.
- It performs a useful role of countering undue influence of the rich and powerful people.
- One single group cannot achieve dominance over society.
- The government gets to hear about what different sections of the population want.
- This leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.
Question: Pressure groups good for democracy. How?
Answer: Pressure groups have broadened democracy. Putting pressure on government is not an unhealthy activity in a democracy.Government may at times be influenced by rich people. It is at this time that pressure groups may play a useful role of converting these pressures and reminding the government of needs and aspirations of the people.Even sectional interest groups may play an important role. If one group’s pressure forces the government to make policies in their favour, the other group will keep a check on this. The government gets to know what people want. It leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of interests.