We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social science History Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
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The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Social Science History Chapter 4
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 Very Short Answer Type
Question: Why was it difficult for the new European merchants to set up business in town in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Answer: This was because urban Crafts and trade guilds were very powerful in the town.
Question: Which industry was symbol of the new era?
Question: Who created the cotton mill [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Richard Arkwright.
Question: Who invented the steam engine [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: James Watt.
Question: Who discovered the Spinning Jenny [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: James Hargreaves.
Question: The introduction of which new technology in England angered women [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: The Spinning Jenny.
Question: Which pre-colonial port connected India to the Gulf countries and the Red Sea ports [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Question: Name any two regions of colonial India which were famous for large-scale industries.
Answer: (i) Bombay (ii) Bengal
Question: Which were the two most dynamic industries of Britain in the early 19th century
Answer: Cotton and metal.
Question: “In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand”. Give reason.
Answer: Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class.
Question: Why women workers attacked the spinning Jenny a machine which was introduced in Britain
Answer: The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the introduction of new technology.
Question: Name the goods from India Which dominated the international market before the age of machine industries.
Answer: Silk and Cotton.
Question: Name any three pre-colonial ports of India.
Answer: Surat , Masulipatnam and Hoogly
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 Short Answer Type
Question: Why was the East India Company keen on expanding textile exports from India during 1760’s
Answer: The consolidation of East India Company power after the 1760s did not initially lead to a decline in textile exports from India. British cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand in Europe. So the company was keen on expanding textile exports from India.
Question: During the first World War years, industrial production in India boomed. Give reasons.
Answer: (i) Manchester imports into India declined as British mills were busy with war production.
(ii) Indian industries were also called upon to supply war needs; Jute bags, doth for the army uniform, tents and leather boots.
(iii) Even after the war. Manchester failed to recapture its old position.
Question: Who created the cotton mill How did it help in improving the production?
Answer: Richard Arkwright had created the Cotton mill.
(i) The costly machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mills.
(ii) Within the mills, all the processes were brought together under one roof and managed. This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when the production was in the countryside.
Question: Describe any four impacts of Manchester imports on the cotton weavers of India. [CBSE Sept. 2011)
Answer: (i) Collapse of local and foreign market :Due to industrialisation in Britain, their export market collapsed.As British traders started exporting machine- made clothes to India, so their local market shrank.
(ii) Shortage of raw material : As raw cotton was being exported to England, there was a shortage of raw materials. When the American Civil War broke out. and the cotton supplies from the United States were cut off. Britain turned to India. As raw cotton exports Iron India increased, the price of raw cotton shot up Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices.
(iii) Clashes with Gomasthas : Gomasthas were appointed by the government to supervise weavers to collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth. The Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So. the weavers dashed with them.
(iv) System of advances: The Britishers started the system of advances to regularise the supply of cotton and cloth. The weavers eagerly took the advances, in a hope to cam more but they faded to do so They even started losing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.
Question: Write a short note on the development of factories in India. Or
Explain the growth of factories in India.
Answer: (i) Cotton and jute mills were the first to be established in India The first cotton mill was set up in 1854 at Bombay Mumbai
(ii) By 1864. the number rose to four The textile null was followed by the jute mill which came into existence in 1855 in Bengal.
(iii) Another jute mill was established in 1862 in Bengal itself.
(iv) In North India, the Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur in the 1860s. and a year later, the first cotton mill of Ahmedabad was set up
(v) By 1874. the first spinning and weaving mill of Madras (Chennai) began is production.
Question: How were the Indian merchant industrialists discriminated by the Britishers Or
Mention some of the problems of the Indian merchant industrialists.
Answer: (i) Limited market : With the introduction ol Manchester good in the Indian market the market within which Indian merchants could function became increasingly limited
(ii) Restriction on export of manufactured goods : The Indian merchants and traders were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods, and had to export only raw materials and food grains-raw- cotton. opium and wheat, indigo reacquired by the British.
(iii) Introduction of modern ships: With the entry of modem ships Indian merchant were edged out of the shipping business.
(iv) Exclusive chambers of the Europeans : The European merchant-industrialists had their exclusive chamber of commerce, and Indians were not allowed to become its members.
Question: Explain the major features of pre-colonial trade and industries.
Answer: (i) Major good: Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles Coarser cottons were produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India.
(ii) Trading partners: Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan. eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.
Question: What was the impact of colonisation of India on the Indian traders and merchants
Answer: (i) By the 1970s this network, controlled by Indian merchants, was breaking down.
(ii)The European companies gradually gained power – first securing a variety of concessions from local courts, then the monopoly rights to trade. This resulted in a decline of the old ports of Surat and Hoogly through which local merchants had operated. Exports from those ports fell dramatically, the credit that had financed the earlier trade began drying up and the local banker slowly went bankrupt.
(iii)While Surat and Hoogly decayed. Bombay and Calcutta grew This shift from the old ports to the new ones was an indicator of the growth of colonial power Trade through the new ports came to be controlled by European companies, and was carried in European ships. While many of the old trading houses collapsed, those that wanted to survive had to now operate within a network shaped by European trading companies.
Question: Certain group of weavers were in a better position than others to survive the competition with mill industries-. Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) Producers of coarse cloth: Amongst weavers some produced coarse cloth while others wove finer varieties. The coarser cloth was bought, by the poor and its demand fluctuated violently. In times of bad harvests and famines when the rural poor had little to eat. and their cash income disappeared, they could not possibly buy cloth.
(ii) Producers of finer varieties: The producers of finer varieties were in a better position because the demand for the finer varieties bought by the well- to-do was more stable. The rich could buy these even when the poor starved. Famines did not affect the sale of Banarasi or Baluchari saris. Moreover, as you have seen, mills could not imitate specialised weavers. Saris with woven borders, or the famous lungis and handkerchiefs of Madras, could not be easy displaced by mill production.
Question: Why was a jobber employed How did jobber misuse his position and power Explain. (CBSE 2013]
Answer: Getting lobs was always difficult, even when mills multiplied, and the demand for workers increased. The numbers seeking work wore always more than the jobs available. Entry into the mills was also restricted. Industrialists usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. Very often, the jobber was an old and trusted worker. He got people from his village, ensured them jobs, helped them settle in the city, and provided them money in times of crisis. The jobber, therefore, became a person with some authority and power. He begun demanding money and gifts for his favour, and began. controlling the lives of the workers.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 4 Long Answer Type
Question: Briefly explain the method and system of production in the countryside in England.[CBSE 2013]
Answer: (i) Disappearing open field system : In the countryside, the open field system was prevailing. i.e.. land was free and anyone could use it for production. But as the population increased, the open field system started disappearing. The rich landlords started enclosing the open fields.
(ii) Cottagers and poor peasants: They had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering the firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw. Now they had to look for alternative sources of income.
(iii) Small fields : As most of the land was acquired by the rich landlords, the poor had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all the members of the household. So when merchants came around, and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
(iv) Full utilisation of family labour resources : By working for the merchants, the poor peasants and the artisans could continue to remain in the countryside, and cultivate their small plots.
(v) Income : Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.
Question: What was proto-industrialisation Why did the poor peasants and artisans in the countryside begin to work for the merchants from the towns [CBSE 2012]
Answer: (i) Impact on cottagers and peasants : After the disappearing of open field system cottagers and poor peasants ‘who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income. Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants cam around and offered advances to produce good; for them, peasant households eagerly agreed. By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.
(ii) Closed relationship between countryside and towns : Within this system a close relationship developed between the town and the countryside. Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside.
(iii) Role of merchants : The whole system of production was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories At each stage of production 20 to 25 workers were employed by each merchant.
(iv) Market : With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. So the Merchants were producing these goods for international market.
(v) Not factories : The goods were no: produced in factories by the cotta cottagers and Hie peasants and their families.
Question: Explain any five causes of industrial revolution in England. [CBSE 2013.2014]
Answer: (i) Growing International Market: In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
(ii) Increase in demand: With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different pans of the world, the demand for goods began growing. It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
(iii) Proto-industrial System: The expansion of market and demand lead to proto-industrial growth which provided a base to Industrial Revolution.
(iv) New Inventions: A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling’. They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production or stronger threads and yarn. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
(v) Availability of Capital : The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated out of profits of her growing trade enabled her to make large expenditure on machinery and buildings. This led to new technological developments.
(vi) Availability of Raw Material : The availability of coal and iron ores in large quantities greatly helped the growth of numerous industries in England
Question: How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficiency of each step of the production process in cotton textile industry Explain. [CBSE 2008]
Answer: (i) New inventions : A series of inventions in the eighteenth century simplified each step of the production process (carding, twisting, spinning, and rolling).
(ii) Increase in output : The new inventions helped in increasing the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more.
(iii) Improvement in Quality : Along ‘with quantity, there was improvement in quality also The new invention made possible the production of stronger threads and yam.
(iv) Creation of cotton mill : It was Richard .Arkwright who created the cotton mill. Mow. the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill Within the mill, all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
(v) All under single roof : This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do so when production was in the countryside.
Question: Explain the major features of the industrialisation process of Europe in the 19th century. [CBSE Compt. 2008 (O)]
Answer: (i) Major industries : Cotton and metal industries were the most dynamic industries in Britain. Cotton was the leading sector i:i the first phase of industrialisation up to the 1840s. but the iron and steel industry led the way after 1840. With the expansion of railways in England from the l840s and in the colonies from the l860s. the demand tor iron and steel increased rapidly. By 1873. Britain was exporting iron and steel worth about 577 million, double the value of its cotton export.
(ii) Domination of traditional industry : The modem machinery and industries could not easily displace traditional industries. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, less than 20 per cent of the total workforce was employed in technologically advanced industrial sectors. Textile was a dynamic sector, but a large portion of the output was produced not within factories, but outside, within the domestic units.
(iii) Base for growth : The pace of change in the ‘traditional’ industries was not set by steam powered cotton or metal industries. They were the ordinary and small innovations which built up the basis o! growth in many non-mechanised sectors such as food processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making and production of implementing sectors.
(iv) New inventions : A series of inventions the eighteenth century increased the efficacy, of each step of the production process (carding, musing and spinning end rolling). They enhanced the output pet worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production of stronger threads and yam. Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill.
(v) Slow pace : Though technological inventions were stung place but their pace was very slow. They did not spread dramatically across the industrial landscape New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them The machines often broke down, and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
Question: ‘Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the mid- 19th century was, not a machine operator, but the traditional craftsperson and a labourer.’ Justify by giving examples. [CBSE 2009] Or
Why do historians agree that the typical worker in the mid-nineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]
Answer: (i) Slow pace of technology of new machines : Though Technological inventions were taking place, bur their pace was very slow They did not spread dramatically across The industrial landscape.
(ii) Expensive : New technologies and machines were expensive, so the producers and the industrialists were cautious about using them. The machines often broke down and the repair was costly. They were not as effective as their inventors and manufacturers claimed.
(iii) Limited use of machines : James Wat improved the seam engine produced by Newcomen, and patented the new engine in 1781. His industrialist friend Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model. But they could no: find sufficient buyers. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were approximately 321 steam engines, all over England. Of these, 9 in wool industries, and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works. No other industry was using steam engine even in the late 19th century. So even the most powerful new- technology that enhanced the productivity of labour manifold was slow to be accepted by the industrialists.