We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Studies History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
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The Making of a Global World Class 10 Important Questions with Answers History Chapter 3
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type
Question: What is globalisation [CBSE Sept. 2011, 2012]
Answer: Movement of people, goods and services across the nations has been termed as globalisation.
Question: What were silk routes [CBSE 2014]
Answer: These were the routes which knitted together vast regions of Asia and linked Asia with Europe and northern Africa. These routes are known to have existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the 15th century.
Question: Who discovered America
Answer: Christopher Columbus.
Question: Name some of the important food items which travelled from far away places to India.
Answer: Potatoes, soya, ground nuts, maize, tomatoes, etc
Question: What was the most powerful weapon of the Spanish conqueror to colonise America
Answer: The germs such as those of smallpox.
Question: What was the impact of germs on the America’s original inhabitants
Answer: America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against the disease. So it killed and decimated whole communities.
Question: Which two countries were among the world’s richest until the 18th century
Answer: China and India.
Question: What changed the world profoundly in the 19th century
Answer: Economic, political, social, cultural and technological factors interacted in complex ways to transform societies and reshape external relations.
Question: Name the technology which enabled the transportation of perishable foods over
Answer: Refrigerated ships.
Question: Name any four colonial powers of the 19th century.
Answer: (i) Britain (ii) USA (iii) France (iv) Germany
Question: Why most of the borders of African countries run straight
Answer: Most of the borders of African countries are straight because Africa was divided on paper in conference halls in Europe.
Question: Name the disease which had terrifying impact on people’s livelihoods and local economy of Africa during 1890’s.
Answer: Cattle plague or rinderpest.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 Short Answer Type
Question: Highlight three main features of life of African people before the coming of Europeans. [CBSE 2013]
Answer: (i) Africa had abundant land and a relatively small population.
(ii) For centuries, land and livestock sustained African livelihoods. Agriculture and animal rearing was the main occupation of the people. Most of the villages and families were self-sufficient.
(iii) People rarely worked for a wage. There were few consumer goods that wages could buy.
Question: Give three examples to show that the world changed with the discovery of new sea routes to America. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Answer: (i) Before the discovery of the sea routes, America had been cut off from regular contact with the rest of the world for millions of years. But from the sixteenth century, its vast lands and abundant crops and minerals began to transform trade and lives everywhere.
(ii) Precious metals, particularly silver, from mires located in present day Peru and Mexico also enhanced Europe’s wealth and financed its trade with Asia. Legends spread in seventeenth-century Europe about South America’s fabled wealth. Many expeditions set off in search of El Dorado, the fabled city of gold
Question: “India played a crucial role in the late 19th century world economy”. Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) Britain had a ‘trade surplus’ with India. Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficits with other countries.
(ii) Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped pay the so-called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by 3ntish officials and traders, interest payments or. India’s external debt, and pensions of British officials in India.
(iii) in the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands of Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations in mines and in rood and railway construction projects around the world.
(iv) India also provided raw material to the developing industries of the world.
(v) India become a major market for the final goods: especially cotton textile
Question: Economists of the 19th century identify three types of movements or ‘flows’ within international economic exchanges.” Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2011. 2012]
Answer: (i) The flow of trade : The flow of trade refers largely to trade in goods. For example, wheat travelled from Russia, America and Australia to Britain.
(ii) The flow of labour : This includes the migration of people in search of employment. For example, more than 50 million people migrated from Europe to America and Australia In search of jobs.
(iii) The movement of capital : This covers the movement of capital for short-term or long-term investments over long distances. For example, capital flowed from financial centres such as London to other parts of the world.
Question: Explain indentured labour with lire help of an example.
Answer: A bonded labourer under contract to work for an employer tor a specific period of rime, to pay off a passage a new country or home. In the nineteenth century, hundreds of thousands o: Indian and Chinese labourers went to work on plantations, in mines and ill roads and railway construction projects around the world.
In India, indentured labourers were hired under contracts which promised the return travel to India after they had worked five years on their employer’s plantation.
Question: What was the impact of industrialisation in Britain on Indian economy
Answer: (i) With industrialisation, the British cotton manufacturers began to expand and industrialists pressurised the government to restrict the cotton imports, and protect the local industries. Tariffs were imposed on doth imports into Britain. Consequently, the inflow of fine Indian cotton began to decline.
(ii) From the early nineteenth century. British manufacturers also began to search the overseas markets for their cloth.
(iii) The British machine-made textile products started giving a tough competition to the Indian textile industry at home.
So there was a decline in the share of cotton textiles from some 30 per cent around 1800 to 15 per cent by 1815. By the 1870s, this proportion had dropped to below 3 percent.
Question: How did India play a crucial role in the nineteenth century world economy Explain with examples. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008]
Answer: (i) Trade Surplus : Britain had a trade surplus with India, i e., a situation under which the value of exports is more than the imports. Britain used this surplus to balance its trade deficit with other countries.
(ii) Home charges : Britain’s trade surplus in India also helped to pay the so called ‘home charges’ that included private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of the British officials in India.
(iii) Major supplier of cotton : India remained a major supplier of raw cotton to Britain which was required to feed the cotton textile industry of Britain.
(iv) Supplier of indentured workers: Many indentured workers from Bihar. Uttar Pradesh, Central India migrated to other countries to work in mines and plantations.
Question: Name the countries involved in the First World War.
Answer: The war was the outcome of the rivalry between the two strong armed camps or the European powers, i.e., Triple Alliance and Triple Entente or the Central Powers.
On the one side were the Allies – Britain. France and Russia (later joined by the US) and on the opposite side were the Centre Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Turkey.
Question: What is the difference between fixed exchange rate and floating exchange rate?
Answer: Fixed rate of exchange refers to the rate of exchange as fixed by the government. Historically, it has two variants; Gold standard system of exchange rate and Bretton woods system of exchange rate.
Flexible or floating rate of exchange is the rate which is determined by the supply-demand forces in the foreign exchange market. It is also called ‘free exchange rate’ as it is determined by the free play of supply and demand forces in the international money market.
When the exchange rate falls, imports rise since import is a component of the demand of foreign exchange and exports fall as export is a component of the supply of foreign exchange.
Question: “The First World War was fought between two power blocs” Explain.
Answer: The First World War was fought from 1914 – 1918. On the one side were the Allies – Britain. France and Russia (later joined by the US): and on the opposite side were the Central Powers – Germany. Austria – Hungary and Ottoman Turkey.
Question: Write any three factors responsible for indentured labour migration from India. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2013]
Answer: (i) Most Indian indentured workers came from the present day regions of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Bihar. Central India and the dry- districts of Tamil Nadu. In the mid-nineteenth century these regions experienced many changes – cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations. All this affected the lives of the poor, they failed to pay then rents, became deeply indebted.
(ii) On the other hand workers were required in other countries for plantations, mines, road and railway construction projects.
(iii) In hope for better future in other countries many workers from India started migrated in other countries.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 3 Long Answer Type
Question: Enumerate the importance of Silk Routes. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: (i) The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modem trade and cultural links between the distant parts of the world.
(ii) The silk route was used by the Chinese traders to export silk to other countries.
(iii) These routes were used by traders to trade goods from one country to another.
(iv) Trade and cultural exchange always went hard in hand. Early Christian missionaries almost certainly travelled through this route to Asia, as did the early Muslim preachers, a few centuries later.
(v) These routes were also used to spread religions Buddhism emerged from eastern India to spread ir. several directions through intersecting points on the silk routes.
Question: Explain the impacts of scrapping of the Corn Law. [CBSE Sept, 2010, 2014] Or
What was the result of the abolishing of Corn Laws? [CBSE Sept, 2010, 2012]
Answer: (i) The scrapping of Corn Laws lead to free trade of food grains.
(ii) After the abolition of Corn Laws, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
(iii) British farmers were unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
(iv) Increase in demand due to fall in prices and increase in income leads to mismatch between demand and supply of food grains.
(v) Many countries of the world like Russia. America and Australia and some eastern European countries started exporting food grains to Britain which gave further set back to the local producers.
Question: ‘By 1890, a global agricultural economy had taken shape.’ Explain by giving example. Or
Describe any three changes in the global agricultural economy after 1890. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) Food and other products : Food and Other products started flowing from far away places. It was no longer grown by a peasant tilling his own land, but by an agricultural worker, perhaps recently arrived, who was now working on a large farm that only a generation ago. had perhaps been a forest.
(ii) Infrastructure : The food and other products being transported by railways bud: for that very purpose and by ships which were increasingly manned in these decades by low paid workers from southern Europe Asia Africa and the Caribbean Islands.
(iii) Raw materials : Indian farmers were producing raw cotton and other farm products to British industry. World trade between 1820 and 1914 multiplied about 25 to 40 times.
(iv) Scrapping of Corn Law : The scrapping of the Corn Laws laid the foundation of free trade. Now food could be imported or exported into Britain freely.
(v) Commercialisation of agriculture in colonies: The imperial countries took various steps to commercialise agriculture in their colonies. For example. British government built a network of irrigation canals to transform semi desert waste land of West Punjab into fertile agricultural land.
Question: Describe in brief the destruction caused during the Second World War. [CBSE 2010 (O), Sept. 2012]
Answer: (i) Death and Destruction : More than GO million people, or about 3 per cent of the world’s population, are believed to have been killed, directly or indirectly, as a result of the tear. Millions or more were injured too. Many big cities were reduced to ashes.
(ii) Damage to Agriculture. Trade and Industries : The World War II caused a great damage to agriculture, trade and commerce. The terrible battles fought in different countries, made large tracts of land infertile. Lakhs of industries were destroyed which caused a severe damage to the industrial production. Many industries were closed down in the absence of sufficient raw materials.
(iii) Increase in Soviet Russia’s Power and Prestige : The Second World War boosted up the power and prestige of the Soviet Union. Russian influence started increasing in the international held, and many countries got attracted towards communism.
(iv) USA becomes a Super Power : The World War II made USA the supreme power of the world Undoubtedly, the USA played an important role in the victory of the Allies. After the war, no European country was either as powerful or as prosperous as the United States of America (USA).
(v) New Economic system : The main aim of the post-war international economic system was to preserve economic Stability and full employment in the industrial world. The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary fund IMP to deal with external surpluses and deficits its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
Question: Economists and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experiences.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept 2012]
Answer: (i) Full employment : An industrial society based on mass production cannot be sustained without mass consumption. But to ensure mass consumption, there was a need for high and stable income. Income could not be stable if employment was unstable Thus, stable income also required a stead. full employment.
(ii) Intervention of government : Before the Second World War, most of the economists believed that capitalist economies or markets are self-sustaining. i.e. there is no need for government intervention. But the inter-war period proved that markets alone could not guarantee full employment.
Therefore, the government would have to step into minimise fluctuations of price, output and employment. Economic stability could be ensured only through the intervention of the government.
Question: What was the role of technology in transforming in the 19th century world Explain with an example. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Answer: (i) Transformation of the world economy : Technology played a major role in all these developments. Railways, steam shipping, telegraph, etc. were important inventions without which it was not possible to imagine the transformation of nineteenth-century world.
(ii) Linking the markets : New investments and improvements in transport: faster railways. lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from far away farms to final markets.
(iii) Impact on the meat trade : Till the 1870s, moat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals which were then slaughtered in Europe. But live animals took up a lot of ship space. Many also died in voyage, fell ill. lost weight or became unfit to eat. So the prices of meat were very high and it was beyond the reacts of the European poor. Due to high price, the demand and production was low. But the invention of refrigerated ships made it possible to transport meat from one region to another.
(iv) Social peace and Imperialism : The refrigerated ships reduced shipping cost and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. Better living conditions promoted social peace within the country and support for Imperialism abroad.
(v) Colonialism : Technology played very important role in linking the world markets which promoted the sprit of colonialism.
Question: What were the factors which were responsible for the end of the Bretton Woods system.
Answer: (i) The Decline of US Currency: After 1960s, the US was no longer the dominant economic power as it had been for more than two decades The US dollar now no longer commanded confidence as the world’s principal currency. Tire dollar could not maintain is value in relation to gold.
(ii) New powers : By the mid-1960s, the E E C and Japan had become international economic powers in their own right. With total reserves exceeding those of the US. with higher levels of growth and trade, and with per capita income approaching that of the US. Europe and Japan were narrowing the gap between themselves and the United States.
(iii) Rise of Western Commercial Banks :From the mid-1970s, the International financial system also changed in important ways. Earlier, developing countries could turn to international institutions for loans and development assistance. But now. they were forced to borrow from Western commercial banks and private lending institutions- This led to periodic debt crises in the developing world and lower income along with increased poverty, especially in Africa and Latin America.
(iv) Problem of unemployment : The industrial world was also hit by unemployment that began rising from the mid-1970s, and remained high until the early 1990s. From the late 1970s, MNCs also began to shift production operations to low-wage Asian countries.
(v) Rise of China and Soviet Union: China had been cut off from the post-war world economy since its revolution in 1949. But new economic policies in China and the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Soviet style communism in Eastern Europe brought many countries back into the fold of the world economy.
(vi) Low cost structure in China : The Chinese economy emerged ns a new super power due to low cost structure. Wages were relatively low- in countries like China. Thus they became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs competing to capture the world markets