We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 7 Print Culture and the Modern World. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
Print Culture and the Modern World Class 10 Important Questions with Answers History Chapter 7
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 7 Very Short Answer Type
Question: Give some examples of print around us.
Answer: The examples of print around us are books, journals, newspapers, paintings, official circulars, calenders, diaries, advertisements, cinema posters etc.
Question: What is calligraphy ?
Answer: Calligraphy is art of beautiful and stylised writing.
Question: How books were printed in China since AD 594 ?
Answer: Books were printed in China by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
Question: When was hand-printing technology introduced in Japan and by whom ?
Answer: Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology in Japan around AD.
Question: Who was the major producer of printed material in China ?
Answer: The imperial state in China was the major producer of printed material.
Question: By whom the textbooks for civil service examination were printed in China ?
Answer: Textbooks for the civil services examination were printed under the sponsorship of the imperial state.
Question: What was the ancient name of Tokyo ?
Question: Which is the oldest printed book of Japan ?
Answer: Diamond Sutra.
Question: Who brought the knowledge of woodblock printing to Europe/Italy ?
Answer: Marco Polo, a great explorer, returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China. He brought wood-block printing technology with him in 1295.
Question: Which was the first book printed by Johann Gutenberg ? How many copies were printed in how many years ?
Answer: The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them.
Question: What is platen ?
Answer: In letter press printing, platen is a board which is pressed onto the back of the paper to get the impression from the type. At one time it used to be wooden board, later it was made of steel.
Question: Who is compositor ?
Answer: The person who composes the text for printing is called compositor.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 7 Short Answer Type
Question: What did Mercier proclaim about the power of print in bringing enlightenment and destroying the basis of despotism ?
Answer: Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth-century France declared, “The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.”
Convinced of the power of print in bringing enlightenment and destroying the basis of despotism, he proclaimed, “Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world, Tremble before the virtual writer.
Question: Mention one major contribution of Richard M. Hoe in developing printing press.
Answer: By mid-nineteenth century, Richarcf M. Hoe of New York perfected the power-driven cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. This press was particularly useful for printing newspapers.
Question: Describe the woodblock printing. [CBSE 2016-17]
Woodblock printing was the earliest kind of print technology.It was developed in China, Japan and Korea.This was a system of hand-writing.From AD 594 onwards, under this system, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese ‘accordion book’ was folded and stitched at the side.Superbly skilled craftsmen could duplicate with remarkable accuracy the beauty of calligraphy.
Question: Which Asian country was the major producer of printed material in the 16th century and why ?[CBSE 2016-17]
Answer: (1) The imperial state in China was the major producer of printed material for a long time.
(2) It was the major producer of printed material due to the following factors :
- China had a large bureaucratic system which recruited its personnel through civil service examinations.
- Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state.
- From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print.
Question: Describe the development of print in Japan.
Answer: The development of print in Japan took place as mentioned below :
- Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand-printing technology in Japan around AD 768-770.
- The oldest Japanese book printed in AD 868 was the Buddhist Diamond Sutra. It contained six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
- Pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and paper money,
- In medieval Japan, the poets and prose writers regularly published their works.Printing of visual material led to interesting publishing practices.
- For example, in the late eighteenth century, at Edo (modern Tokyo) illustrated collections of paintings depicted an elegant urban culture, involving artists, courtesans, and teahouse gatherings.
- Libraries and bookstores were full with hand-printed material of various types such as books on women, cooking, famous places, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony and flower arrangements.
Question: Write a short note on Ukiyo. [CBSE 2016-17]
Answer: Kitagawa Utamaro, born in Edo in 1753, widely known for his contributions to an art form called Ukiyo (pictures of the floating world) or depiction of ordinary human experiences, especially urban ones.These prints travelled to contemporary US and Europe and influenced artists like Manet, Monet and Van Gogh.Publishers like Tsutaya Juzaburo identified subjects and commissioned artists who drew the theme in outline.Then a skilled woodblock carver pasted the drawing on a woodblock and carved a printing block to reproduce the painter’s lines.In the process, the original drawing would be destroyed and only prints would survive.
Question: How was the increase in demand for books met in Europe in the fourteenth century ?
Answer: The expanded demand for books in Europe was met in the following ways :
- Booksellers all over Europe began exporting books to many different countries.
- Book fairs were held at different places.
- Production of handwritten manuscripts also continued to meet the expanded demand. Skilled handwriters were employed by booksellers. Sometimes more than 50 scribes were employed by one bookseller.
- Woodblock printing was widely used to meet the demand, i But in spite of the above efforts, there was still a great need for even quicker and cheaper reproduction of texts which was fulfilled by the development of the printing press by JohannGutenberg in the 1430s.
Question: How did Gutenberg get the idea of a printing press and perfected it ? Which was his first printed book ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Answer:(1) Gutenberg was the son of a merchant and grew up on a large agricultural estate. From his childhood, he had seen wine and olive presses.Subsequently, he learnt the art of polishing stones, became a master goldsmith, and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds used for making trinkets.Drawing on this knowledge, Gutenberg adapted existing technology to design his innovation.The olive press provided the model for the printing press.Moulds were used for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet.By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system.
(2) The first book he printed was the Bible. About 180 copies were printed and it took three years to produce them. By the standards of the time this was the fast production.
Question: What is a manuscript ? Why production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books ?
Answer:(1) Manuscript is a document or book written by hand.
(2) The production of handwritten documents could not satisfy the ever-increasing demand for books for the reasons as mentioned below :
- Copying was an expensive, laborious and time consuming business.
- Manuscripts were fragile, awkward to handle, and could not be carried around or read easily.
As a result of the above factors, the circulation of manuscripts remained limited and by the early 15th century, woodblocks were being widely used in Europe.
Question: “The new technology did not entirely displace the existing art of producing books by hand.” Explain.
Answer: It is true that the new technology did not displace the existing art of producing books by hand. At the same time Gutenberg personalise the printed books suiting to the tastes and requirement of others as mentioned below :
- The metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles.
- Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
- In the books printed for the rich, space for decoration was kept blank on the printed page.
- Each purchaser could choose the design and decide on the painting school that would do the illustrations.
- No two copies of the first printed Bible were same and every copy could be claimed as unique, for no one else owned a copy that was exactly the same.
Question: “The transition from a hearing public to reading public was not simple.” Explain. How the hearing public and reading public became intermingled ?
Answer: The transition from a hearing public to reading public was not simple due to the reasons as mentioned below :
- Books could be read only by the literate people.
- Rates of literacy in most European countries were very low till the twentieth century.
- To reach and persuade the common people to welcome the printed books, publishers had to keep in mind the wider reach of the printed work so that even those who did not read could certainly enjoy listening to books being read out. So printers published popular ballads and folk tales and illustrated such books with pictures. These were then sung and recited at gatherings in villages and in taverns in towns. Oral culture thus entered print and printed material was orally transmitted. As a result of it, the hearing public and reading public intermingled.
Question: Why was there fear of print among some people in Europe ? Explain.
- The printed book was not welcomed by all. Even those who did it also had some fears about it.
- On the other hand, many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and the wider circulation of books, could have on people’s minds.
- It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread. If that happened the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed. This fear or anxiety was the main basis of criticism of the new printed literature.
Question: Why did some people in eighteenth century Europe think that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism ?
Answer: Some people in eighteenth century Europe thought that print culture would bring enlightenment and end despotism. Printing pr^ss was the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion was the force that would destroy the basis of despotism. Such were the views of Louise-Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth century France. In many of Mercier’s novels, the heroes are transformed by acts of reading. They devour books, are lost in the world books create, and become enlightened in the process. He was convinced of the power of print and proclaimed : ‘Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer’.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 7 Long Answer Type
Question: “The print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred.” Give three arguments in favour of the statement. [CBSE 2016-17]
Answer: It is correct to say that the print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred.The following arguments are given in support of this view :
- Popularisation of ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers : It is stated that print culture popularised the writings of Rousseau, Voltaire and others. These thinkers were against the sacred authority of the Church and the despotic power of the state. Rousseau’s ideal of ‘liberty, equality and fraternity’became the motto of the revolutionaries. These ideas enlightened the masses.
- New culture and dialogue and debate : With the coming of print culture, people became aware of the power of reason. They started questioning the existing ideas and beliefs and authority of the Church. Within this public culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.
- Criticism of royalty of their morality : New literature criticised royalty for their lavish life style at a time when people were suffering from hunger. Cartoons and caricatures showed that the monarchy was absorbed in sensual pleasures. The ordinary people i.e., peasants, artisans and workers, had a hard time while the nobility enjoyed life and oppressed the poor. Such writings led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the monarchy.It played a significant role by influencing the people to think in different ways and questioning the authority of the monarchs as well as the Church.However it may be added that print helped the spread of ideas but people read all types of literature. There was monarchical and Church propaganda. They were not influenced by one idea. They accepted some and rejected other ideas. So it can be said that the print did not directly shape their minds but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.
Question: What kind of material was printed for children and women during the nineteenth century that made them an important category of readers ?
Answer: The following types of printed material was responsible for increase in readership of children and women in the 19th century :
(1) Children :
- Primary education became compulsory from the late 19th century.
- A children’s press set up in France in 1857 devoted to literature for children alone.
- Old fairy tales and folk tales were published.
- The Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled traditional folk tales gathered from peasants. A collection of stories was published in 1812.
- Anything that was considered unsuitable for children or would appear vulgar to the elites, was not included in the published version.Rural folk tales thus acquired a new form. In this way, print recorded old tales but also changed them.
- Penny Magazine was published between 1832 and 1835 in England. It was aimed primarily at the working class and women.
- There were manuals teaching proper behaviour and house keeping.
- Novels were written in the nineteenth century by women like Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, George Eliot. Their writings became important in defining a new type of woman, a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.
Question: Describe the strategies developed by the printers and publishers in the nineteenth century to sell their products.
Answer: The printers and publishers developed the following strategies to sell their products :
- Periodicals serialised novels : Nineteenth century periodicals serialised important novels. This became popular among the people.
- Shilling series : In the 1920s in England, popular works were sold in cheap series, called the Shilling Series.
- Dust cover or the book jacket : It was also innovated and used in the 20th century.
- Paperback editions : During the Great Depression in the 1930s, publishers brought out cheap paperback editions in order to sustain buying and to avoid a decline in book purchases.
Question: What is manuscript ? Mention any two limitations of it during 19th century.
- There were handwritten manuscripts in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian and various vernacular languages.
- Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
- There were illustrations on pages.
- To preserve them, these were either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation.
(2)The manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life due to their drawbacks/ limitations as mentioned below :
- Manuscripts were, however, highly expensive and fragile.
- They had to be handled carefully.
- They also could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.
In view of the above, manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life. Their use remained limited. Even in schools, teachers used to dictate portions of texts to students. Many people, thus, became literate without ever actually reading any kind of texts.
Question: Print did not only stimulate the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities, but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India.” Support the statement with examples. [CBSE 2016-17]
Answer: From the early nineteenth century, there were intense debates around religious issues. Different interpretations about the beliefs of different religions were given. Print culture published such ideas which resulted in more participation in public discussions. For example, there were controversies between social and religious reformers and Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation (sati system), monotheism, idolatry. The newspapers published these controversies in the spoken language of ordinary people.
In North India, The ulama were worried that the colonial rulers would encourage conversion and change the Muslim personal laws. They, therefore, started cheap lithographic presses. Islamic doctrines were explained. A number of Muslim sects appeared giving different interpretation of faith. In all these activities, Urdu print helped them conduct these battles in public.Among Hindus, too, print encouraged the reading of religious texts in vernacular languages. For example, Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas was published from Calcutta in 1810.
Thus, religious texts reached a large number of people and encouraged them to take part in discussions, debates and controversies. It is, therefore, rightly said that print encouraged the publication of conflicting opinions among communities.
However, newspapers conveyed news from one place to another, creating pan-Indian identities. It, therefore, connected communities and people in different parts of India.