We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Studies History Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Important Questions with Answers History Chapter 1
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 Very Short Answer Type
Question: Which French artist prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world ? [CBSE 2013]
Solution: Frederic Sorrieu.
Question: What do you understand by ‘absolutist’ ?
Solution: Absolutist, literally a government or system of rule that has no restraints on the power exercised. In history, the term refers to a form of monarchical government that was centralised, militarised and repressive.
Question: What is a Utopian ?
Solution: Utopian is a vision of society that is so ideal that it is unlikely to actually exist.
Question: What are advantages of a nation ? State one advantage
Solution: The existence of nations is a guarantee of liberty, which would be lost if the world had only one law and only one master.
Question: What is Plebiscite ?
Solution: Plebiscite is a direct vote by which all the people of a region are asked to accept or reject a proposal.
Question: State any one step that could create a sense of collective identity among the French people.
Solution: The ideas of the fatherland and the citizen emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
Question: How the Napoleon code was implemented in the regions under French control ?
Solution: In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy and Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
Question: Why did the people in the conquered territories become hostile to Napoleon’s rule ?
Solution: The people became hostile due to increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer ihe rest of Europe. All these seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Question: In Austria-Hungary in the mid-eighteenth century, there were different groups, languages etc. In such a situation what was the binding tie between them ?
Solution: The only tie binding the diverse groups together was a common allegiance to the emperor.
Question: What do you mean by suffrage ?
Solution: Suffrage means right to vote.
Question: Who had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states of Germany ?
Question: In 1834, which customs union was formed ? Who joined it ?
Solution: In 1834 a customs union – zollvere in was formed. The union was joined by most of the German state.
Question: What was said about Mazzini by Metternich ?
Solution: Metternich described him as “the most dangerous enemy of our social order”
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 Short Answer Type
Question: Who was Frederic Sorrieu ? Describe main features of the first print prepared by him in 1848 ?
Solution: (1) Frederic Sorrieu was a French artist who prepared a series of four prints visualising his dream of a world made up of “democratic and social republics” as he called them.
(2) The main features of the first print of the series were as mentioned below :
- It shows men and women of all ages of Europe and America offering homage to the statue of Liberty.
- Liberty was personified as a female figure with the Torch of Enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man in the other.
- In the foreground are the shattered remains of the symbols of absolutist institutions.
- Procession is led by USA and Switzerland who were already nation states. Other people are following them.
- From heavens above, Christ, saints and angels gaze upon the scene to symbolise fraternity among the nations of the world.
- In Sorrieu’s uptopian vision, the peoples of the world were grouped as distinct nations, identified through their flags and national costume. Thus,many issues have been visualised by Sorrieu in his prints but it is vision that can be realised.
Question: What were the reactions of the local populations to the French rule in the conquered territories ?
Solution: The reactions of the local peoples in the conquered territories by the French were mixed. In the beginning, in Holland, Switzerland, Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, people welcomed the French armies as harbingers of liberty. Political freedom was advantageous but more taxes, censorship and forced conscription into the French armies for conquering rest of Europe made local population hostile to them because it became clear that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom. Increased taxation, censorship, forced conscription into the French armies required to conquer the rest of Europe, all seemed to outweigh the advantages of the administrative changes.
Question: Describe the condition of the aristocracy in Europe in the mid-eighteenth century.
Solution: Landed aristocracy :
- Socially and politically, ,a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent.
- They were united by a common way of life, such as owning large estates and town houses,use of French language for diplomacy and in high society.
- They were also united with ties of marriage with each other. Thus, aristocracy was powerful but they were in minority.
Question: Who were granted the right to vote in France during the period of revolution?
- In France, the right to vote and election was granted only to property-owning men.
- Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights.
- During the period of Jacobins, all adult males were granted right to vote.
- The Napoleonic Code again granted limited right to vote. Women were reduced to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.
- Women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Question: How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe ? [CBSE2015] Or
‘Culture has played an important role in the development of nationalism in Europe during 18th and 19th centuries.’ Support the statement with examples. [CBSE 2016] Or
How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe ? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2013] Or
Describe the role of culture in shaping the feeling of nationalism in Europe from 1830 to the end of the 19th century. [CBSE 2013]
Solution: Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation : art and poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings. Romanticism helped in developing a particular form of nationalist sentiments.
- Romantic artists and poets generally criticised the glorification of reason and science.
- (2) They focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings in order to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
- German philosopher Johann Gottfried tried to popularise the true spirit of the nation through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
- The emphasis on Vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was to recover an ancient national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterate.
- In Poland which had been partitioned by the Great Powers, national feelings were kept alive through music and language. Karol Kurpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
- Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments.
- After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere.
- In 1831 an armed rebellion against Russian rule was crushed.
- After this many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
- Polish was used for church gatherings and all instructions. The use of Polish came to be seen as symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
- As a result of it a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment. But the use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.
Question: The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support that statement with arguments. [CBSE 2016] Or
Why was the decade of 1830s known as the great economic hardship in Europe ? Explain any three reasons. [CBSE 2013]
Solution: The 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe due to the following reasons :
- There was enormous increase in population all over Europe.
- There were more seekers of jobs than employment.
- People migrated from rural areas to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
- There was stiff competition between the products of small producers and products imported from England where goods were made by machines as industrialisation had already taken place there.
- Peasants’ condition was bad due to burden of feudal dues and obligations.
- The prices of food had risen due to bad harvest. This had resulted in widespread pauperism in town and country.
Question: Describe the condition of Italy before unification. [CBSE 2014]
Solution:Condition of Italy in the nineteenth century :
- Italy had a long history of political fragmentation.
- Italians were scattered over various dynastic states as well as multi-national Habsburg Empire.
- During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states.
- Out of these states only Sardinia-Piedmont was ruled by an Italian princely house.
- The north was under Austrian Habsburgs.
- The center was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain.
- There was no common language too.
Question: Explain the process of unification of Italy. [CBSE 2013]
Solution:The unification of Italy was completed in various stages :
- Sardinia-Piedmont defeated Austria in 1859.
- Modena, Parma and Tuscany were added to Piedmont.
- Garibaldi succeeded in South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in 1860 and drove out the Spanish rulers.
- Austria ceded Venetia to Italy in 1866.
- In 1870, Rome was taken over as the French soldiers were withdrawn.
- Rome was made the capital of Italy.
Question: How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe ?
Solution:The history of nationalism in Britain was unlike the rest of Europe in the following ways :
- It was not the result of wars as was in Germany but a long drawn out process.
- Different ethnic groups – English, Welsh, Scot and Irish had their own cultural and political traditions. But the English nation, in course of time, was able to extend it’s influence over the other nations of the islands due to her wealth, importance and power.
- As a result of Glorious Revolution in 168874,he English Parliament was the instrument through which a nation state with England as its center, came to be forged.
- The Act of Union (1707) formed ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. As the majority of the members of British Parliament were English members, a policy of repression was followed against catholic clans of Scottish Highlands.
- In Ireland too similar policy was followed. There were Catholics as well as Protestants. Catholic revolts were suppressed and ultimately in 1801, Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom.
- A new ‘British nation’ was forged through the propagation of a dominant English culture. The symbols of the new Britain – the British Flag (Union Jack), the national anthem (God Save Our Noble King), the English language – were actively promoted and the older nations survived only as subordinate partners in this union.
Question: Describe the nature of nationalism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
Solution: The nature of nationalism in the last quarter of the nineteenth century was as mentioned below :
- It no longer retained its idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of the first-half of the century but became a narrow creed with limited ends.
- During this period nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war.
- The major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims.
Question: What was the area of the Balkans ?
Solution: The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 1 Long Answer Type
Question: What conditions led to the development of a new middle class in Europe?
- In Western Europe and parts of Central Europe, the growth of industrial production and trade meant the growth of towns and the emergence of commercial classes whose existence was based on production for the market.
- Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century, but in France and parts of the German States, it occurred only during the 19th century.
- In its wake, new social groups came into being, a working class population and middle classes made up of industrialists, businessmen and professionals.
- In Central and Eastern Europe, these groups were smaller in numbers till late 19th century.
- It was among the educated, liberal middle classes that ideas of national unity following the abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
Question: Describe the main clauses of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.
- The Bourbon dynasty which had been deposed during the French Revolution was restored to power.
- France lost the territories it had annexed under Napoleon.
- A series of states were setup on the boundaries of France to prevent French extension in future.
- Kingdom of the Netherlands, included Belgium was setup.
- Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers.
Question: What kinds of conservative regimes were set up in 1815? What did liberals think about them?
Solution: Conservative regimes set up in 1815 were autocratic.
- They did not tolerate criticism and dissent and sought to curb activities that questioned the legitimacy of tyrannical governments.
- Most of them imposed censorship laws to control what was said in newspapers, books, plays and songs and reflected the ideas of liberty and freedom associated with the French Revolution.
- The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless, continued to inspire liberals.
- One of the major issues taken up by the liberal nationalists (who criticised the new conservative order) was freedom of the press.
Question: Give a brief description of the French Revolution of 1830.
Solution: The first upheaval took place in France in July 1830. The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries, who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head. Metternich once remarked, “When France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches cold.” The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdoms of the Netherlands.
Question: How did the Polish language work as a symbol of struggle against Russian dominance?
Solution: Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance. Polish was used for church gathering and all religious instructions. As a result, a large number of priests and bishops were put in jail or sent to Siberia by the Russian authorities as punishment for their refusal to preach in Russia. The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance.