We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Science History Chapter 2 Nationalism in India. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
Nationalism in India Class 10 Important Questions with Answers History Chapter 2
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Very Short Answer Type
Question: What is the meaning of ‘Begar’? [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Answer: Meaning of Begar: Labour that villager was forced to contribute without any payment.
Question: Name the writer of the novel ‘Anandamath.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Answer: Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay
Question: Who financed the defence expenditure of World War I?
Answer: War was financed by war loans and increasing taxes. Customs duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
Question: Why were people in rural areas angry with Britishers?
Answer: There was forced recruitment of soldiers in rural areas. Crops failed resulting in acute storage of food, accompanied by influenza epidemic.
Question: When did Mahatma Gandhi return to India?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915. He had come back from South Africa.
Question: Explain the ‘Idea of Satyagraha’. OR
What is meant by Satyagraha? [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Answer: The idea of Satyagraha emphasised the power of truth and the need to search for the truth.
Question: How can battles be fought with Satyagraha?
Answer: Idea of Satyagraha suggested that if the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor. Without being aggressive, battle could be won.
Question: What was ‘Champaran Movement’?
Answer: It was the first satyagrahi movement that took place in 1916, in which Mahatma Gandhi travelled to Champaran to inspire the indigo planters to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
Question: Why did Kheda farmers protest against Britishers?
Answer: Affected by crop failure and a plague epidemic, the peasants of Kheda could not pay the revenue and demanded that revenue collection be released.
Question: What was Rowlatt Act of 1919?
Answer: It gave the British government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
Question: What was Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction on ‘Rowlatt Act’?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws, which would start with a hartal on 6th April.
Question: How did people react to Rowlatt Act?
Answer: Rallies were organised in various cities, workers went on strike in railway workshops and shops were closed down. Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British started arresting the nationalists.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Short Answer Type
Question: Explain the ideas of Gandhiji as he expressed in the famous book ‘Hind Swaraj’ regarding Non-cooperation. [CBSE 2012]
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi wrote the Hindi Swaraj. In the book, Gandhiji declared that the British rule was established in India with thecooperation of Indians, and had survived only because of this cooperation.If Indians refused to cooperate, the British rule in India would collapse within a year, and Swaraj would be established.
Question: What were the three local issues in which Gandhiji experimented his technique of Satyagraha during the years 1917-1918 How were these issues resolved [CBSE March 2011]
Answer: The three local issues were Champaran satyagraha ; Kheda satyagraha and Ahmedabad satyagraha
(1)Champaran Satyagraha. In the first experiment indigo farmers were encouraged to raise their voice against the oppressive policies of the British. Their demands were sanctioned.
(2) Kheda Satyagraha : The second experiment was for the farmers who were unable to pay the revenue because of famine and plague epidemic. The recovery was waived off.
(3) Ahmedabad Satyagraha : The third was for the mill workers who were protesting for better wages. The British had to increase the wages along with reforms in working conditions.
Question:Who launched the Khilafat Movement Why was the Movement launched [CBSE March 2012]
Answer: Khilafat movement was a united struggle launched by Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali with the cooperation of Mahatma Gandhi.The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor, the spiritual head of the Islam world. The Sultan was deprived of real authority even over those territories which were left under his control. This angered the Muslims in India.
To defend the powers of Khalifa and to avert harsh peace treaty to be imposed on the Ottoman empire the Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 in Bombay.
Question: Why Gandhiji supported the Khilafat Movement [CBSE March 2011, 2012]
Answer: (i) As the Rowlatt Satyagraha was limited to cities and towns Gandhiji felt the need to launch a more broad based movement in India. But he was certain that no such movement could be organised without bringing the Hindus and Muslims close together. So he took up the Khilafat issue.
(ii) A new generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammed Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring the Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
Question: How was the Non-Cooperation Movement converted into a national movement by Gandhiji?
Answer: (i) Hindu-Muslim Unity : Mahatma Gandhi felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. He was certain that no such movement could be organized without bringing the Hindus and Muslims closer together.
(ii) Merging Khilafat issue with the movement : So to unite the both the communities he decided to take up the Khilafat issue. The First World War had ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey. And there were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on Ottoman emperor – the spiritual head of the Islamic world (the Khalifa).
(iii) Talking to Muslim leaders : A young generation of Muslim leaders like the brothers Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the issue. Gandhiji saw this an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement. At the Calcutta session of the Congress in September 1920, he convinced other leaders of the need to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat as well as for Swaraj.
Question: Who formed the Swaraj Party Why was the party formed?
Answer: The Swaraj Party was formed by CR Das, and Moti Lai Nehru.The Non-cooperation movement failed to achieve its objective of Swaraj. So within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in elections to the provincial councils that had been set up by the Government of India Act of 1919. They felt that it was important to oppose British policies within the councils, argue for reform and also demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party within the Congress to argue for a return to council politics.
Question: Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities Give reasons. [CBSE March 2011, 2014, 21015 (D)]
Answer: (i) Expensive Khadi : The Khadi cloth was often more expensive than the mass- produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
(ii) No alternative : The boycott of British institutions posed a problem. For the movement to be successful, alternative Indian institutions, had to be set up so that they could be used in place of the British institutions but these were slow to come up. So students and teachers had no option except joining back government schools, and lawyers joined back work in government courts.
(iii) Local movements with different interpretation: Workers, industrialists, peasants, traders had their own understanding, of Gandhiji’s notion of ‘Swaraj.’ They started using violent methods for their demands. All this was not approved by Gandhiji and the Congress. So the movement started losing its shine.
Question: Plantation workers too had their own understanding of Gandhiji’s notion of Swaraj.” Explain.
Answer: (i) For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and it meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
(ii) The government had passed the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 under which plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea estates without permission, and in fact, they were rarely given such permission.
(iii) When the plantation workers heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement, thousands of them defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed towards their homes.
(iv) The plantation workers believed that the Gandhi Raj was coming, and everyone would be given land in their own villages.
Question: Why was the Swaraj Party formed? By whom was the party formed?
Answer: There were some Congress leaders who argued or advocated the idea of fighting the British from within the legislative councils. They wanted to pressurise the government for various reforms through councils. They also wanted to demonstrate that these councils were not truly democratic. Keeping in mind these objectives, C. R. Das and Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party in 1922.
Question:Why was the Simon Commission constituted ?
Answer: The Indian members of the Central Legislative Assembly exposed the drawbacks in the Government of India Act of 1919 A.D. As a result of it, the Simon Commission was appointed in 1927 A.D. to suggest any further constitutional reforms. This commission consisted of seven members and its Chairman was Sir John Simon.
Question: Explain the reason for the Lahore Session of the Congress in 1929 to be called the historical session. [CBSE 2014]
Answer: (i) The Simon Commission had to face demonstration all over India, and no party was in favour of the Commission. So in an effort to win the political parties the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of “dominion status’ for India in an unspecified future and a Round Table Conference to discuss a future constitution.
(ii) The announcement fell short of the expectations of the Congress. At its Lahore Session, presided over by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in December, 1929, the Congress passed a resolution boycotting the Round Table Conference. It declared ‘Purna Swaraj’ (Complete Independence) as its goal, and took steps to launch a programme of Civil Disobedience. The Puma Swaraj Day was celebrated all over India on 26th January, 1930.
Extra Questions for Class 10 History Chapter 2 Long Answer Type
Question: Gandhiji’s Satyagraha combines the ideas of truth and non violence”. Explain with three examples. [CBSE 2014 (D) Compt]
Answer: Satyagraha was a non-violent method of mass agitation against the oppressor. The method suggested that if the cause was true, if the struggle was against injustice, there is no need for physical force to fight the oppressor.
(i) Gandhiji used the Satyagraha technique successfully against injustice in South Africa.
(ii) In 1916 A.D., he fought for justice for the tenants of Champaran, and the Government had to pass an Act for the welfare of the peasants of Champaran in 1918 A.D.
(iii) He started the Kheda Satyagraha in which Gandhiji asked the people not to pay the taxes due to the failure of crops. Ultimately, the Government had to bow, and the payment of taxes was deferred to the next year.
(iv) Again in 1918 A.D., Gandhiji intervened in the Mill Workrs’ Strike at Ahmedabad, and helped them to get their pay raised, for which he had started a fast unto death.
Question: Explain the reactions of Indian people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919. [CBSE March 2012 (O)]
- (i) Gandhiji called for a country wide Hartal on 6th April, 1919. But he was arrested.
- (ii) There were disturbances in Delhi, Ahmedabad and Punjab. In Amritsar, two popular leaders, Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Saif- ud-din Kitchlew, were arrested. The people took out a procession in Amritsar to protest against these arrests, and demanded the release of their leaders.
- (iii) A public meeting was announced for the 13th April, 1919, at the Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar against the arrest of the leaders.
- (iv) General Dyer marched there and killed more than 1,000 people.
- (v) As the news of the Jallianwalla Bagh spread, crowds took to the streets in many North Indian towns. There were strikes, clashes with the police and attacks on government buildings.
Question: How did ‘Non-Cooperation Movement’ spread in cities across the country Explain its effects on the economic front. [CBSE 2015(D) ]
Answer: (i) The movement in the cities : The Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(ii) Boycott of council elections : The Council elections were boycotted in most provinces except Madras (Chennai), where the Justice Party, the party of the nonBrahmans, felt that entering the council was one way of gaining some power, something that usually only Brahmans had an access to.
(iii) Swadeshi : The Non-Cooperation Movement had a great impact on the Indian textile industry. Swadeshi goods, especially cloth got a great impetus. Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(iv) Impact on industry : In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Due to this, the demand of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up. The increase in demand provided a big relief to the vanishing textile industry of India.
(v) Movement in the countryside: Though people in the countryside interpreted the idea of ‘Swaraj’ in their own way but they participated in the movement on large scale. In Awadh, peasants launched the movement against the talukdars and landlords. Whereas the plantation workers launched the movement against the tea estate owners.
Question: Describe the main events leading to Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930. [CBSE March 2011]
Answer: (i) Failure of the Simon Commission: The Simon Commission was constituted in response to the nationalist movement. But the Commission failed to satisfy the Indian people and the leaders. All the parties, including the Congress and the Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations. In an effort to win them over the Viceroy, Lord Irwin, announced in October 1929, a vague offer of dominion status. But even this failed to satisfy the leaders.
(ii) Puma Swaraj: In December 1929, under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Lahore Congress formalised the demand of ‘Puma Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was declared that 26th January, 1930, would be celebrated as the Independence Day when people were to take a pledge to struggle for complete independence. But the celebrations attracted very little attention. So Mahatma Gandhi had to find a way to relate this abstract idea of freedom to more concrete issues of everyday life.
(iii) Rejection of Gandhi’s Eleven Demands: On 31st January, 1930, Mahatma Gandhi, in a statement, put forward Eleven Demands to correct the wrongs done to the Indians.He assured the Viceroy that he would withdraw the Civil Disobedience on British Government’s acceptance of these demands. However, Gandhi’s demands were declared to be unrealistic by the Viceroy.
(iv) Economic Causes: The Great Depression of 1929 had a deep impact on the Indian economy, especially on agriculture. Prices of agricultural produce began to fall from 1926, and collapsed after 1930. As the demand for agricultural goods fell and export declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest, and to pay their revenue. The government refused to lower the taxes. So by 1930, the farmers were in poor condition.
(v) Support from business class: The business class was keen on expanding their business and were against the colonial policies that restricted business activities. They decided to provide financial support to the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was launched.
Question: Some of the Muslim political organisations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedient Movement’.” Examine the statement. [CBSE2013 (D)]
Answer: (i) Association of Congress with Hindu Mahasabha : After the decline of the Non-Cooperation – Khilafat movement, a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress. From the mid-1920s, the Congress came to be more visibly associated with openly Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
(ii) Communal Clashes : As relations between the Hindus and the Muslims worsened, each community organised religious processions with militant fervour, provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots in various cities. Every riot deepened the distance between the two communities.
(iii) Issue of demand for separate electorates: Some of the Muslim leaders demanded a separate electorate for the Muslims which was not supported by the Congress leaders.
(iv) Status of Muslims in Hindu majority state : Many Muslim leaders and intellectuals expressed their concern about the status of Muslims as a minority within India. They feared that the culture and identity of minorities would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority.
(v) Issue of reserved seats in the Central Assembly : Muslim League leader Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded reservation of seats for the Muslims in the Central Assembly but this was not acceptable to the Congress leaders. So Muslims could not respond to the call for a united struggle.