We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 3 Water Resources. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.
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Water Resources Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Geography Chapter 3
Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Very Short Answer Type
Question: What is water scarcity [CBSE 2014]
Answer: Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demand.
Question: “The availability of water resources varies over space and time”. Give reasons.
Answer: Water resources varies over space and time due to the variation in seasonal and annual precipitation.
Question: What percentage of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as oceans
Question: How much per cent of the total volume of world’s water is estimated to exist as fresh water
Question: What are the sources of fresh water?
Answer: Precipitation, surface run off and groundwater.
Question: How is freshwater being renewed?
Answer: The freshwater is being renewed through the hydrological cycle.
Question: Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops”. Mention its ecological consequence.
Answer: Salinisation of the soil1.
Question: What was the primary reason for launching ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’
Answer: Narmada Bachao Andolan was launched due to the large scale displacement of local communities.
Question: What is silt?
Answer: A fine soil which is formed in flood plains.
Question: How people used to conserve or harvest water in hills and mountainous regions
Answer: By building diversion channels like the ‘guts’ or ‘kuls’.
Question: How people used to harvest water in the flood plains of Bengal?
Answer: By building inundation channels to irrigate their fields.
Question: How people harvest water in the semi- arid and arid regions of Rajasthan?
Answer: By building underground tanks.
Question: Many people of arid and semi-arid regions construct under-ground rooms adjoining the water tanks. Give reason.
Answer: By beating the summer heat it would keep the room cool.
Question: Name any two states where roof top water harvesting is most common.
Answer: Meghalaya and Rajasthan.
Question: Define the term Tankas. [CBSE 2008 (F)]
Answer: Tankas are the underground tanks for storing drinking water.
Question: Which is the purest form of natural water?
Question: What is Kul?
Answer: It is a circular village tank from which water is released and taken when required.
Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Short Answer Type
Question: What is hydrological cycle? What is its importance?
Answer: The continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of earth is known as hydrological cycle. The freshwater is mainly obtained from surface run off and ground water that is continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. All water moves within the hydrological cycle ensuring that water is a renewable resource.
Question: What are dams? How do these help to conserve and manage water?
Answer: A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment.
(i) Dams were traditionally built to impound rivers and rainwater that could be used later to irrigate agricultural fields. (ii) Dams are also source of perennial canals.
Question: Who proclaimed the dams as the temples of modern India Give reason.
Answer: Jawaharlal Nehru proudly proclaimed the dams as the ‘temples of modem India’; the reason being that it would integrate development of agriculture and the village economy with rapid industrialisation and growth of the urban economy.
Question: ‘Multipurpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many social movement’. Name any two such movements. Why these movements were launched?
Answer: Multipurpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new social movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’ etc. Resistance to these projects has primarily been due to the large – scale displacement of local communities. Local people often had to give up their land, livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation.
Question: How has irrigation changed the cropping pattern? What is its impact on the social landscape [CBSE Sep 2012]
Answer: Due to irrigation facilities many farmers have shifted to water intensive and commercial crops. For example, Punjab has become major producer of rice inspite of low rainfall.
Impact on social landscape: This transformation has widens the gap between rich and poor. The rich and mighty who can afford higher inputs has become more rich whereas the poor have failed to get benefit due to lack of capital.
Question: Explain three ways in which irrigation schemes have changed the social landscape of the region. [CBSE 2012]
Answer: (i) Displacement of the local people : Local people often had to give up their land, livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater good of the nation.
(ii) Social movements : Multipurpose projects and large dams have also been the cause of many new social movements like the ‘Narmada Bachao Andolan’ and the ‘Tehri Dam Andolan’, etc.
(iii) Widening the gap between rich and poor : Multipurpose projects have widened the gap between rich and poor. The landlords, large farmers and industrialist are getting benefit at the cost of poor.
Question: Why are different water harvesting systems considered a viable alternative both socio economically and environmentally in a country like India [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011]
Answer: (i) Water harvesting is a very cheap and affordable method of conservation of water.
(ii) Indian people have in-depth knowledge of rainfall regime and soil type. They have developed techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, rain water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs.
(iii) Rainwater harvesting techniques are more environmental friendly as compare to multipurpose river projects.
Question: Write the features of the ‘tankas’ built in the houses of Bikaner, Phalodi and Banner. [CBSE 2013]
Answer: (i) The tanks could be as large as a big room;one household in Phalodi had a tank that was 6.1 meters deep, 4.27 meters long and 2.44 meters wide.
(ii) The tankas were part of the well-developed rooftop rainwater harvesting system and were built inside the main house or the courtyard.
(iii) They were connected to the sloping roofs of the houses through a pipe.
(iv) Rain falling on the rooftops would travel down the pipe and was stored in these underground tankas.
(v) The first spell of rain was usually not collected as this would clean the roofs and the pipes. The rainwater from the subsequent showers was then collected.
Question: Mention any two features of bamboo drip irrigation?
Answer: Features of bamboo drip irrigation ;
(i) Bamboo drip irrigation system is 200 year old system of tapping stream and stripwater by using bamboo pipe.
(ii) Bamboo pipes are used to divert perennial springs on the hilltops to the lower reaches by gravity.
Question: Why is rooftop rainwater harvesting important in Rajasthan Explain. [CBSE 2013, 14]
Answer: (i) The rainwater stored in tankas is an extremely reliable source of drinking water when all other sources are dried up.
(ii) Rainwater is considered the purest form of natural water.
(iii) Many houses constructed underground rooms adjoining the tanka to beat the summer heat as it would keep the room cool.
(iv) There is lack of perennial rivers in Rajasthan.
(v) The rainfall is not reliable in this region.
Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 3 Long Answer Type
Question: ‘Three-fourths of the earth’s surface is covered with water but there is still scarcity of water across the globe.’ Explain giving three reasons. [CBSE 2011]
Answer: (i) Growing population : Growing population is one of the basic factors which is responsible for the scarcity of water. Most of our cities are facing this problem due to overpopulation. A large population means more water not only for domestic use but also to produce more food.
(ii) Commercialisation of agriculture : After the success of Green Revolution, our farmers are producing commercial crops. The commercial crops need more water and other inputs. Assured means of irrigation like tube wells and wells are responsible for the falling groundwater levels.
(iii) Industrialisation : The post independent India witnessed intensive industrialisation and urbanisation. Today, large industrial houses are common in the form of industrial units of many MNCs (Multinational Corporations). The ever increasing number of industries has made matters worse by exerting pressure on the existing freshwater resources. Industries, apart from being heavy users of water, also require power to run them. Much of this energy comes from the hydroelectric power.
(iv) Urbanisation : Urbanisation has also aggravated the problem of water scarcity. Most of our cities are overpopulated. Overpopulation leads to over- utilisation of the water resources, and also pollutes the existing resources
Question: Explain the ecological problems being faced due to the multi-purpose river projects. [CBSE 2013]
Answer: In recent years, the multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition for a variety of reasons :
(i) Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier streambeds and poorer habitats for the rivers, as well as the aquatic life.
(ii) Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for the aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
(iii) The reservoirs that are created on the flood. Plains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over time.
(iv) Irrigation has also changed the cropping pattern of many regions with farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinisation of the soil.
Question: Water is available in abundance in India even then scarcity of water is experienced in major parts of the country. Explain with four examples. [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Answer: (i) Quantitative aspect : This aspect is related to the availability of water resources. The availability of water resources varies over space and time mainly due to variations in seasonal and annual precipitation. However, water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.
(ii) Qualitative aspect : Now, let us consider another situation where water is sufficiently available to meet the needs of the people, but, the area still suffers from water scarcity. This scarcity may be due to bad quality of water. Lately, there has been a growing concern that even if there is ample water to meet the needs of the people, much of it may be polluted by domestic and industrial wastes, chemicals, pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture, thus, making it hazardous for human use.
Question: Give any four objectives of the multipurpose river valley projects. [CBSE Sept. 2011]
Answer: (i) Generation of Power (electricity) :These multipurpose projects are the main source of power generation. According to the Economic Survey, 2013, these produce more than 39,788.40 MW power. They provide us neat, pollution free and cheapest energy which is the backbone of industry and agriculture.
(ii) Flood Control : These projects control the floods because water can be stored in them. These projects have converted many ‘rivers of sorrows’ into ‘rivers of boon’. For example, the river Kosi.
(iii) Soil Conservation : They help to conserve the soil because they slow down the speed of water.
(iv) Irrigation : These projects are the main source of irrigation for our country. These irrigate the fields during the dry seasons. Many perennial canals have been dug and they irrigate dry areas.
Question: Why are multipurpose projects facing resistance Explain with three reasons. [CBSE Sept.2010]
Answer: (i) Adverse effect on the fertility of the soil : Due to the construction of dams, there are no annual floods in the river. And because of this, the soil of the downstream region does not get nutrient rich “silt”. This decreases the fertility of the soil.
(ii) Adverse impact on aquatic life: Due to the construction of dams on the rivers, the fish in the downstream area do not get sufficient nutrient material. Regulating and damming of rivers affect the natural flow of water causing poor sediment flow downward, and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate for spawning i.e., to produce eggs.
(iii) Displacement of local communities : The building of large dams results in displacement of local communities. The local people often have to give up their land and livelihood and their meagre access and control over resources for the greater food of the nation.
(iv) Change in the cropping pattern : The multipurpose projects are responsible for providing assured means of irrigation to farmers. Due to this, most of the farmers have changed the cropping pattern shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has led to salinisation of soil leading to ecological imbalance.