Extra Questions of Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries PDF Download

We have provided you with Extra and Important Questions from Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 6 Manufacturing Industries. This Extra and Important Questions will help you to score 100% in your Board Exams. These extra questions will be helpful to revise the important topics and concepts.

Manufacturing Industries Class 10 Important Questions with Answers Geography Chapter 6

Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Very Short Answer Type

Question: Define manufacturing.

Answer: Production of goods in large quantities after processing from raw materials to more valuable products is called manufacturing.

Question: What was the main philosophy behind public sector industries?

Answer: Public sector helps in eradication of unemployment and poverty. It also aimed at bringing down disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

Question: How does manufacturing help in earning foreign exchange?

Answer: Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

Question: Which twin states of India are known for cotton production?

Answer: Maharashtra and Gujarat are the twin states of India known for cotton production.

Question: Why are more cotton textile mills located in Gujarat and Maharashtra?

Answer: Availability of raw cotton, market, transport including accessible port facilities, labour, moist climate, etc., contributed towards its localisation.

Question: Name the people who are provided employment opportunities by cotton textile industries.

Answer: Cotton farmers, cotton boll pluckers, workers engaged in ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, packaging, tailoring and sewing. People who have industries of chemical and dyes, mill stores, packaging materials and engineering works.

Question: What is India’s status in jute production?

Answer: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at the second place as an exporter after Bangladesh.

Question: Where was the first jute mill set up?

Answer: The first jute mill was set up in 1859 at Rishra near Kolkata.

Question: What happened to jute production after partition?

Answer: After partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three-fourth of the jute producing area went to Bangladesh.

Question: Which are the main markets of jute?

Answer: The main markets of Jute are USA, Canada, Russia, United Arab Republic, UK and Australia.

Question: Where does India stand in sugar production?

Answer: India stands second as a world producer of sugar but occupies the first place in the production of gur and Khandsari.

Question: Name the regions where sugar mills of India are located.

Answer: There are over 460 sugar mills in the country spread over UP, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh.

Question: What are the chief characteristics of aluminium?

Answer: It is light, resistant to corrosion, a good conductor of heat, malleable and becomes strong when it is mixed with other metals.

Question: What are the main uses of aluminium?

Answer: Aluminium is used to manufacture aircraft, utensils and wires.

Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Short Answer Type

Question: How can agriculture and industry go hand in hand?

Answer: The agro industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its production. It produces equipments like tractors, harvesters, threshers, etc.On the other hand, industries are run on agricultural products like cotton, sugarcane, jute, edible oils, etc.

Question: “Industrialization and urbanisation go hand in hand.” Validate the statement. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]

Answer: After an industrial activity starts in a town, urbanisation follows. Industry provides employment to the people of the area. Population migrates from rural hinterlands to seek jobs, Housing and transport facilities are developed to accommodate these people. Other infrastructural developments take place leading to growth and development of the town into a city.

Sometimes, industries are located in or near the cities. Cities provide markets and services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advice, etc. to the industry. Thus, industrialisation and urbanisation go hand in hand.

Question: Classify industries on the basis of their main role. How are they different from each other? [CBSE (F) 2016]

Answer: (i) Basic or key industries: These industries supply their product or raw materials to manufacture other goods; e.g., iron and steel, copper smelting and aluminium smelting.

(ii) Consumer industries: These are the industries that produce goods for direct use by consumers; e.g., sugar, toothpaste, paper, sewing machines, fans, etc.

Question: Which factors were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industries in Maharashtra and Gujarat?


  • Raw cotton is easily available in and around that area because of the black cotton soil.
  • Transport including accessible port facilities for export of cotton goods.
  • Cheap and skilled labour is available around that area.
  • Favourable moist climate contribute towards its localisation.

Question: What problems are faced by the cotton textile industry?


  • Power supply remains erratic, thereby, affecting its production.
  • Machinery needs to be upgraded in the weaving and processing sectors particularly.
  • There is lower output of labour, since they are not skilled in their jobs.
  • There is a stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry.

Question: What efforts were made by the government to stimulate demands of jute in the market?


  • In 2005, the National Jute Policy was formulated with the objective of increasing production.
  • Efforts would be made to improve production and introduce some new products of jute-like fabric.
  • Government can ensure good prices to the jute farmers, enhancing the yield per hectare.

Question: Why do you feel that there are plans to shift sugar mills to South India?

Answer: Reasons to shift sugar mills:

  1. Sugarcane produced in these states have higher sugar content.
  2. The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
  3. The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
  4. If sugarcane is transported from South to North India, due to delays in trains, sugarcane loses its sugar content as it is a perishable good.

Question: What are the challenges faced by the sugar industry?

Answer: Challenges:

  1. The industry is seasonal, so getting labour becomes difficult
  2. India is still using old and inefficient methods of production, thereby, affecting its production.
  3. There are transport delays in transporting sugarcane to factories, with the result that it loses its sugar content.
  4. There is a need to maximise the use of bagasse to face the problem of power break up.

Question: Why does the Chota Nagpur plateau have the maximum concentration of iron and steel industries?

Answer: It is because of the relative advantages this region has for the development of this industry.

  1. Low cost of iron ore is available, since it is mined in this region.
  2. Its high grade raw material is available in close proximity.
  3. Cheap, hard and skilled labour is easily available.
  4. There is a vast growth potential in the home market.

Question: Why did Mahatma Gandhi lay emphasis on spinning yarn and weaving khadi?

Answer: Weaving is done by handloom, power loom and in mills. The handspun khadi provides large-scale employment to weavers in their homes as a cottage industry. Mahatma Gandhi also wanted to propagate the use of the indigenous khadi material to revive the jobs of jobless weavers during the British period.

Question: How are industries responsible for polluting freshwater? Suggest any three measures to reduce the water pollution. [CBSE (F) 2017]

Answer: Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and effluents discharged into rivers.

The main culprits are paper, pulp, chemical, textile and dyeing, petroleum refineries, tanneries and electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts and heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc., into the water bodies.

Fly ash, phospo-gypsum and iron and steel slags are the major solid wastes in India.

Question: How is land polluted?

Answer: Land is polluted by wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities. Dumping of wastes, especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging, salts and garbage, makes the soil useless. Rainwater percolates into the soil carrying the pollutants to the ground and the groundwater also gets contaminated.

Question: How can we compete in international market in manufacturing?

Answer: In the present-day world of globalisation, our industry needs to be more efficient and competitive. Self-sufficiency alone is not enough. Our manufactured goods must be at par in quality with those in the international market. Only then, we will be able to compete in the international market.

Question : What are ‘agglomeration economies’?

Answer: Cities provide markets and also provide services such as banking, insurance, transport, labour, consultants and financial advisors, etc., to the industries. Many industries tend to come together to make use of the advantages offered by the urban centres known as ‘agglomeration economies. Gradually a large industrial agglomeration takes place. So, it is basically coordination of various industries’ in a city for the development of manufacturing industries.

Extra Questions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Long Answer Type

Question: What are the uses of chemical industries?

Answer: The chemical industry is its own largest consumer. Basic chemicals undergo processing to further produce other chemicals that are used for industrial application, agriculture or directly for consumer markets.For example, sulphuric acid is used to manufacture synthetic fibres and plastics or petrochemicals are used for producing synthetic fibres and synthetic rubber, etc.

Question: Which ingredients are needed for the fertiliser production?

Answer: The fertiliser industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilisers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilisers, and ammonium phosphate and complex fertilisers, which have a combination of nitrogen, phosphate and potash. The potash is entirely imported as the country does not have any reserves of commercially usable potash or potassium compounds in any form. India is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilisers.

Question: What factors are required to set up an industry in a region?

Answer: Factors required to set up an industry:

  • Availability of raw materials: Raw materials should be easily available from nearby areas only.
  • Labour: Labour should be skilled and easily available from the neighbouring areas only.
  • Power supply: Without power supply, an industry cannot run, so it should also be available as per the requirements.
  • Market: If it is a heavy material and a perishable good, market for the sale of the goods should also be available in a nearby area only.

Question: What are the major drawbacks for the cotton textile industry?

Answer: Major drawbacks:

  • India has a large share in the world trade of cotton yarn but its trade in readymade garments is only 4 per cent of the world’s total.
  • India’s spinning mills are competitive at the global level and capable of using all the fibres produced.
  • But the weaving, knitting and processing units cannot use much of the high quality yarn that is produced in the country.
  • There are some large and modern factories in these segments, but most of the productions are in fragmented small units, which cater to the local market.
  • This mismatch is a major drawback for the industry. As a result, many Indian spinners export cotton yarn while garment manufacturers have to import fabric.

Question: What is the status of India in jute production?

Answer: India is the largest producer of raw jute and jute goods and stands at second place as an exporter after Bangladesh. There are about 70 jute mills in India. Most of these are located in West Bengal, mainly along the banks of the Hugli River, in a narrow belt. The first jute mill was set up near Kolkata in 1859 at Rishra. After partition in 1947, the jute mills remained in India but three fourths of the jute producing areas became part of Bangladesh.

Question: Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy.

Answer: Challenges faced by the jute industry:

  • Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
  • To stimulate the demand of the products need to be diversified.
  • Stiff competition from the other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil etc.

Objective of National Jute policy:

  1. Increasing productivity.
  2. Improving quality.
  3. Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers.
  4. Enhancing the yield per hectare.

Question: “The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE Delhi 2016]

Answer: Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of our country due to following reasons:

(i) Manufacturing Industries not only help in modernising agriculture, which forms the backbone of our economy, they also reduce the heavy dependence of people on agricultural income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.

(ii) Industrial development eradicates unemployment and poverty from our country. This was the main philosophy behind public sector industries and joint sector ventures in India. It was also aimed at bringing down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.

(iii) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce, and brings in much needed foreign exchange.

(iv) Countries that transform their raw materials into a wide variety of finished goods of high value are prosperous. India’s prosperity lies in increasing and diversifying its manufacturing industries as quickly as possible.

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